Greenberg Oral Chelation Study-page 14
References to Scientific reviews of
ingredients proposed above
Listed under each Formula Ingredient below is the mechanism and supporting ref.
Traps toxic metals in the GI tract. Acts as an ion exchange resin
Chlorella is a species of unicellular fresh water algae which has been shown to possess detoxifying properties enabling it to assist or support the human detoxification system. Chlorella algae contain phytochemicals which support Phase I and Phase II detoxification reactions while the cell walls function as an ion exchange resin to absorb and retain toxic metals which can then be excreted. Chlorella can be used as a significant source of nutrients including vitamins, amino acids, fatty acids and minerals. They possess no toxicity and 20 grams or more can be ingested daily without any adverse effect. H.B.Xue, W.Stumm, L.Sigg: The binding of Heavy Metals to Algal Surfaces, Water Res 1988;22, 917. Carr HP, et al. Characterization of the cadmium-binding capacity of Chlorella vulgaris. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 1998;60(3): 433-440. M.Kraft: Bindungsverhalten von Arsen, Cadmium, Chrom, Quecksilber, Nickel und Blei an schwerverdauliche Lebensmittel und Lebensmittelkomponenten in kuenstlichem Magen-Darm-Saft. PhD Thesis. Institut fuer Hygiene, Sozial-und umweltmedizin der Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Germany, (1998). Ahner, AB, Kong KS, Morell MM, Phytochelatin production in marine algea: An interspecies comparison. Limnol Oceanograph 1995;40: 649-657. Northcote DH et al, 1958 The chemical composition and structure of the cell wall of Chlorella pyrenoidosa. .Biochem J 70:391-97. Travieso RO et al. 1999Heavy Metal Removal by microalgae. Bull. Environ.Contam.Toxicol.62:144-151.
Cilantro (aerial parts) (from 10:1
Mobilizes toxic metals from the central nervous system and other tissues
Cilantro is a vegetable in the parsley family shown by Omura and others to be an effective chelator of CNS toxic metals. Its active component is a mercaptan which can penetrate the blood brain barrier. Omura Y, Beckman SL Role of mercury (Hg) in resistant infections & effective treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis and Herpes family viral infections (and potential treatment for cancer) by removing localized Hg deposits with Chinese parsley and delivering effective antibiotics using various drug uptake enhancement methods. Acupunct Electrother Res. 1995;20(3-4): 195-229. Omura Y, Shimotsuura Y, Fukuoka A, Fukuoka H, Nomoto T. Significant mercury deposits in internal organs following the removal of dental amalgam, & development of pre-cancer on the gingiva and the sides of the tongue and their represented organs as a result of inadvertent exposure to strong curing light (used to solidify synthetic dental filling material) & effective treatment: a clinical case report, along with organ representation areas for each tooth. Acupunct Electrother Res. 1996 ;21(2): 133-160. 98 Ewan KB, Pamphlett R Increased inorganic mercury in spinal motor neurons following chelating agents. Neurotoxicology 1996;17(2):343-349
Enhances permeability of cell membranes and reduces inflammation
Methyl sulfonyl methane or MSM is a naturally occurring sulfur containing molecule found in fruits, vegetables, seafood and meat. It is present in the body and humans excrete from 4-11 mg. daily in urine. Research suggests that it is required for the body to preserve normal function and structure. Its toxicity is about equal to water. Food processing destroys the MSM normally present in food. MSM aids in detoxifying metals by contributing sulfur to methionine and cysteine as well as peptides and proteins and is eventually incorporated into connective tissue. It is also believed to enhance detoxification by increasing the permeability of cell walls. Recommended dosage for continuous use is 3000-6000 mg/day. When starting MSM some individuals may experience transient diarrhea, headache, skin rash, or fatigue associated with the release of toxins. Jacob, Stanley W, M.D., Lawrence, Ronald M, M.D., PhD, Zucker, Martin The Miracle of MSM, The Natural Solution for Pain New York: Berkley Books 1999
L-Glutamine: Restores and preserves gastro-intestinal function, enhances hair excretion, glutathione precursor Glutamine is utilized as a source of energy and for nucleotide synthesis in all rapidly dividing cells. Hair follicles depend on it for energy production so that it assists the hair follicle in excreting toxic metals and the lining of the intestine in resisting the effects of toxic metals. It also is involved in the detoxification of ammonia, which reduces ATP production and thus ammonia interferes with detoxification reactions that depend on adequate supplies of ATP. Toxic metal poisoning frequently interferes with the regulation of glucose levels in the body, increasing susceptibility to hypoglycemia. Glutamine can prevent hypoglycemia since it is easily converted in glucose. Glutamine is a substrate for glutathione, which plays a major role in the body's antioxidant and detoxification defenses. Both glutamine and glutathione are reduced in lead toxicity. Williams R. et al; Metabolism of freshly isolated human hair follicles capable of hair elongation: a glutaminolytic aerobic glucolytic tissue; J Invest Dermatol. 1993 June; 100(6):834-40. Fox AD et al; Effect of a glutamine-supplemented enteral diet on methotrexate induced enterocolitis. J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1988 Jul-Aug, 12(4):325-31. Cao Y et al ;Glutamine enhances gut glutathione production; J Parenter Enteral Nutr.1998 Jul-Aug; 22(4):224-7. Wessner B, et al; Effect of single and combined supply of glutamine, glycine, n- acetylcysteine and R,S alpha lipoic acid on glutathione content of myelomonocytic cells. Clin Nutr. 2003 Dec;22(6):515-22.
NAC (N-Acetylcysteine): Binds
toxic metals, raises glutathione levels and acts as antioxidant.
Yim CY, et al: Use of N-acetylcysteine to increase intracellular glutathione during induction of antitumor responses by IL-2, Journal of Immunology, 1994 Jan 15; 152(1 2):5796-805. Meyer A, Buhl R, Magnussen H: The effect of oral N-acetylcysteine on lung glutathione levels in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, European Respiratory Journal, 1994 Mar; 7(3):431-6