Greenberg Oral Chelation Study-page 13
References to Scientific reviews of
ingredients proposed above
Listed under each Formula Ingredient below is the mechanism and supporting ref.
Vitamin E (as d-alpha-tocopherol succinate):
Antioxidant, supports thyroid function
Chang, L.W, Gilbert,M and Sprecher,J: Modification of methylmercury neurotoxicity by vitamin E, Environ.Res. 1978;17:356-366
Selenium (as sodium selenite):
Enhances chemical detoxification, reduces toxicity of metals, necessary for conversion of T4 to T3 for normal thyroid function.
Selenium is an important constituent of glutathione peroxidase, which breaks down toxic peroxides and free radicals. It has been shown to significantly reduce heavy metal toxicity Yoneda S, Suzuki KT Detoxification of mercury by selenium by binding of equimolar Hg-Se complex to a specific plasma protein. ToxicolAppl Pharmacol 1997;143(2):274-280
Johansson E: Selenium and its protection against the effects of mercury and silver. J Trace Elements 1991;5:273-274
Gailer J; George GN; Pickering IJ, et al. Structural Basis of the Antagonism between Inorganic Mercury and Selenium in Mammals. Chem Res Toxicol 2000 Nov 20;1 3(11): 1135-1142
Vitamin C (as ascorbic acid):
Promotes excretion of toxic metals, essential antioxidant, supports thyroid function
Vitamin C is known to enhance the excretion of toxic metals in the gut and to protect against free radical damage Hill, CH. Interactions of vitamin C with lead and mercury. Ann N YAcad Sci 1980;355:262-6
Yamini B, Sleight SD. Effects of ascorbic acid deficiency on methyl mercury dicyandiamide toxicosis in guinea pigs J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 1984 Jul;5(4-5):139-50
Zorn NE, Smith JT A relationship between vitamin B12, folic acid, ascorbic acid, and mercury uptake and methylation.Life Sci 1990 ;47(2): 167-73
Iyengar GV; Nair PP. Global outlook on nutrition and the environment: meeting the challenges of the next millennium. Sci Total Environ 2000 Apr 1 7;249(1 -3):331 -46.
Zinc (as zinc citrate):
Stimulates metallothionine, reduces toxicity of metals
Journal of Orthomolecular Psychiatry 7 (2):94-106 1978
Flora SJ, Tandon SK: Beneficial effects of zinc supplementation during chelation treatment of lead intoxication in rats, Toxicology, 1990 Nov; 64(2):129-39
Magnesium (as magnesium aspartate):
Aids in chelation, replaces lost or chelated magnesium, protects against free radical damage
Assists in removing lead and other toxic metals. Reduces free radical damage from radiation and toxic substances.
1) Chugh SN, Kolley T, Kakkar R, Chugh K, Sharma A. ,A critical evaluation of anti-peroxidant effect of intravenous magnesium in acute aluminium phosphide poisoning. 2) 235: Soldatovic D, Vujanovic D, Matovic V, Plamenac Z. Compared effects of high oral Mg supplements and of EDTA chelating agent on chronic lead intoxication in rabbits. Magnes Res. 1997 Jun;10(2):127-33. PMID: 9368233, 3) 321: Soldatovic D, Matovic V, Vujanovic D.
Prophylactic effect of high magnesium intake in rabbits exposed to prolonged lead intoxication. Magnes Res. 1993 Jun;6(2):145-8. PM ID: 8274359
Binds intracellular toxic metals, quenches free radicals and raises glutathione levels.
Alpha lipoic acid is a sulfur containing co-factor for many essential biochemical reactions with potent antioxident properties. It is lipid and water soluble and can penetrate the blood brain barrier. This helps to remove toxic metals from the CNS. Ziegler C, et al: Alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy in Germany: current evidence from clinical trials, Experimental & Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes 1999; 1 07(7):42 1-30.
Ziegler C, et al: Alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy in Germany: current evidence from clinical trials, Experimental & Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes 1999;107(7):421-30.
Gregus Z, et al: Effect of lipoic acid on biliary excretion of glutathione and metals, Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology 1992 May; 114(1 ):88-96.
Enhances biliary excretion, protects CNS , retina, and white blood cells.
Taurine is a conditionally essential sulfur containing amino acid found in meat, fish, eggs and dairy products which appears to function as a neuromodulator and protective antioxidant in the CNS, where it is present in large amounts. Taurine levels are reduced in patients with lead poisoning. Taurine also protects the kidneys and retina from free radical damage by toxic metals and also protects the liver, heart, lungs and neutrophiles. Taurine has also been shown to enhance the secretion of toxic metals in bile. Chesney, R.W. et al: Role of taurine in infant nutrition, Adv Exp Med Biol 1998 442:463-76
Stapleton PP etal: Host Defense - a role for the amino acid taurine? J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1998 Jan-Feb;22(1):42-8. Schuller-Levis GB, Park E: Taurine- new implications for an old amino acid. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2003 Sep 26;226(2):195-202. Redmond HP et al. Immunonutrition - the role of taurine. Nutrition 1998 Jul-Aug; 14(7-8):599-604
Kontny E et al:The mechanism of taurine -choramine inhibition of cytokine production by rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes; Arthritis Rheum 2000 Oct,43(10):169-77.